Furtraders Descending the Missouri by George Caleb Bingham
(Metropolitan Museum of Art)
I. Sectional Specialization following War of 1812 (Era of Good
b) Capital accumulated by merchants and shipbuilders
c) Plentiful labor supply
d) Poor agricultural conditions
e) Lowell (or Waltham ) system brought girls to factories for a few years. No permanent working class. Strike in 1834 to protest 25% wage cut
2) New England became center of textile mills, while Pennsylvania led in production of iron.
b) Eli Whitney
ii) Interchangeable parts in production of rifles
4) Goals of Northeast section
b) high-priced public lands to keep workers from migrating
c) federally built internal improvements to expand home markets
B. Plantation agriculture of South
2) Removal of Indians from Southeastern US allowed expansion
3) Success of cotton led to one-crop economy
4) Goals of Southern section
b) no internal improvements
c) public lands available for sale in large chunks
C. Diversified farming in the West
b) Corn and livestock in Ohio Valley
c) Tobacco in Kentucky
2) Improved transportation allowed for marketing of surpluses
3) Goals of the Western section
b) protective tariffs to stimulate growth of a home market
c) federally built internal improvements
II. Improvements in Transportation
2) South and West needed manufactured goods
3) South needed food from the West
B. Many turnpikes (toll roads) built by private companies from 1800-1825. Most famous: Cumberland Road which allowed wagon traffic from the seaboard and the Ohio River.
C. Canal Era(1825-35)--need for cheaper, faster freight transportation
2) Numerous other canals were constructed by private companies.
D. Steamboat traffic along the Hudson, Mississippi and Ohio Rivers became extensive in the 1820s and 30s.
2) Stimulated agricultural economy of West by providing better access to markets at lower cost.
III. Missouri Compromise (1820)
B. Northern states opposed adding a new slave state to the Union, which would upset the balance of 11 free and 11 slaves in the Senate
C. Compromise reached which stated
2) Maine would enter as free state
3) Line drawn at 36 º30' with slavery banned in the portion of the Louisiana Purchase north of that line.
IV. Monroe Doctrine (1823)
B. Problems leading to development of doctrine
2) European interference (Metternich's principle of intervention)
C. Elements of doctrine
2) U.S. would not intervene in European wars
D. Impact of doctrine not immediate, but it signalled America's emergence as a power strong enough to prevent European meddling in western hemisphere's affairs
Feldmeth, Greg D. "Sectionalism & National Growth," U.S. History Resources <..//gfeldmeth/lec.sect.html (Revised 28 June 2004).