2. Focus on the Second Coming of Christ. Need for reform of society to hasten the new Kingdom of God.
3. Biggest impact among women. Evangelical mission to save others gave women more status, purpose.
4. Frontier revivals featured emotional appeals while providing social meetings for settlers
2. Shakers--socially radical. Abolished families, practiced celibacy and full equality between sexes.
3. Mormons--Organized by Joseph Smith in 1830 as a cooperative theocracy with himself as the Prophet. Because of persecution, Smith and his followers moved from New York to Ohio to Missouri to Illinois, where he was murdered by opponents. Succeeded by Brigham Young, who led migration to Utah.
B. Brook Farm Experiment. Transcendentalist in orientation, rejecting society's standards and Enlightenment thought, emphasizing individualism and the mysteries of nature. Famous contributors: Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Melville.
B. Education--compulsory education in every state by 1860. Led by Horace Mann, who secularized the curriculum and made it more practical to train citizens.
C. Women's Rights--women were considered so inferior to men that they were not allowed to obtain higher education, vote, or control their own property
2. Seneca Falls Statement (1848)--statement of women's mistreatment by men.
3. Improvement made possible by:
b) Industrial revolution demonstrated to women that they could enter occupations
c) Reform movements, where women could crusade equally with men.
2. Abolitionism rose in the 1830s with an emphasis on racial equality. Intent on freeing, then educating blacks.
b) Theodore Weld worked for gradual emancipation through religious conversion. Used Oberlin College as training ground for abolitionists
c) Organized abolitionists smuggled 2,000 slaves a year out of the South to Canada and deluged Congress with petitions despite the gag rule (1836) which forbid the discussion of slavery in Congress.
2) Legal code reforms
b) Abolishing of public hangings in many states
c) Abandoning flogging and other cruel punishments
Please cite this source when appropriate:
Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. History Resources"
http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html (31 March 1998).
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