2. Involvement of an increasing proportion of the work force in manufacturing
3. Production concentrated in large, intricately organized factories
4. Accelerated technological innovation, emphasizing new inventions and applied science
5. Expanded markets, no longer local and regional in scope
6. Growth of a nationwide transportation network based on the railroad, along with a communications network based on the telegraph and telephone
7. Increased capital accumulation for investment in expansion of production
8. Growth of large enterprises and specialization in all forms of economic activity
9. Steady increase in the size and predominance of cities (see The American City lecture).
2. Railroad growth fueled industrial development. Over 100,000 miles of track were laid between 1877 and 1893, doubling the U.S. network
b) Time zone adoption allowed co-ordination of systems (U.S. divided into four zones)
c) Adoption of steel rails, bearing heavier loads
d) Massive grants of American land (131 million acres from federal government, 49 million acres from states)
2. Rockefeller organized Standard Oil Co. and bought out smaller refiners
3. Organized trusts to combine companies, reduce competition, and increase profits
B. Labor strife arose in the 1870s with frequent strikes
2. Homestead Strike in Pennsylvania, 1892 resulted in seven deaths
3. Pullman Strike, 1894 in Chicago temporarily stopped railroad traffic and required federal intervention
2. American Federation of Labor (1886). Organized by Samuel Gompers. Focused on higher wages, shorter hours, and safer working conditions
3. Eugene Debs and American Railway Union (1892). Socialist approach that viewed government and owners as enemies of workers
B. Edward Bellamy Looking Backward(1888)--extremes of wealth and poverty need to be countered with socialist state free of vicious competition
C. Henry Lloyd Wealth Against Commonwealth(1894)--aggression of trusts, particularly Rockefeller's, would lead to economic slavery. Cooperation with the government owning and operating the means of production would produce equality
2. By 1900, 13% of all textile workers were younger than 16.
2. 72,000 railroad workers killed between 1900 and 1917
2. In Muller v. Oregon (1908), Court reversed Lochner and limited women's working hours to 10 per day.