American Colonies




Penn's Treaty with the Indians
by Benjamin West
(Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts)


Colony Founded
Region Founder Religion
Government
Original Purpose Economics
Note
Roanoke
1585
Southern Sir Walter Raleigh


Establish English colony in New World
Colonists disappeared without a trace.
Virginia
1607

Southern John Smith
Anglican

Royal
Trade and profits Tobacco
Founded as joint-stock company. House of Burgesses (1619). Only 60 of 1st 900 colonists survived.
Plymouth
1620
New England William Bradford
Puritan

Corporate
Religious freedom for Separatists Mixed farmiing
Mayflower Compact. Led by William Bradford
New York
1626
Middle Peter Minuit
None

Proprietary, then royal
Trade and profits Mixed farming, furs
Set up as Dutch colony, taken over by English in 1664
Massachusetts Bay
1630
New England John Winthrop
Puritan

Corporate

Religious freedom for Puritans Mixed farming, fishing, shipbuilding
Led by John Winthrop. 18,000 settlers by 1642
New Hampshire
1630
New England John Mason
Puritan

Corporate, then royal
Escape for those constricted by religious and economic rules Mixed farming
Puritan harshness led these settlers north and inland.
Maryland

1634
Middle George Calvert
None (Anglican after 1692)

Proprietary
Religious freedom for Catholics Tobacco
Founded by George Calvert. Slow growing (only 600 by 1650. Maryland Toleration Act (1649)
Connecticut 1636
New England Thomas Hooker
Puritan

Corporate
Religious and economic freedom Mixed farming
Leaders of Massachusetts asked Hooker and followers to leave.
Rhode Island 1636
New England Roger Williams
None

Corporate
Religious freedom Mixed farming
Williams set up most tolerant colony
Delaware 1638
Middle Peter Minuit
None

Proprietary

Trade and profits.
Established by Sweden; taken by Dutch, then English.
North Carolina 1653
Southern Group of proprietors
Anglican

Proprietary
Trade and profits Rice
Joint business venture
New Jersey 1660
Middle Lord Berkeley
None

Proprietary
Trade and profits Mixed farming
Established by Sweden; taken by English in 1664
South Carolina 1670
Southern Group of proprietors
Anglican

Proprietary
Trade and profits Rice
Rice major crop.
Pennsylvania
1682
Middle William Penn
None

Proprietary
Religious freedom for Quakers; trade and profits Wheat, mixed farming
Originally Quaker, this colony became home to many European immigrants
Georgia
1733
Southern James Oglethorpe
Anglican

Royal
Debtor colony. 
Rice
Buffer for Spanish colonies Originally outlawed slavery and restricted size of land grants to 500 acres.


Based on several sources, including The American Journey by Goldfield

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