|Lincoln elected president
||Though winning in the electoral college, Lincoln's lack of a popular
majority (1.9 million out of 4.7 million votes cast) is an indication of
the problems he would face with a divided nation
|South Carolina secedes
||On news of Lincoln's election, South Carolina (site of nullification
fight in 1830s) secedes
||Seven states form Confederacy, write their own constitution, and plan
for an independent nation
||Lincoln enters Washington D.C. in disguise because of unrest. Southerners
begin seizing federal posts.
|Ft. Sumter attacked
||Charleston, South Carolina
||Lincoln decides to supply Ft. Sumter, but wants the South to fire the
|Bull Run (Manassas), 1st battle
||July 21, 1861
||Gen. McDowell leads 30,000 men against Gen. Johnston's 22,000 Southern
troops in an attempt to crush the rebels and go "On to Richmond." South
scores victory as Union troops flee back to Washington in disarray. McDowell
replaced by Gen. McClellan
|Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson
||Gen. Grant captures two forts on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.
Confederates forced out of Kentucky and yield much of Tennessee
|Monitor vs. Merrimac
||Off Hampton Roads, Virginia
||First ironclad battle in history ends in a draw as the Merrimac withdraws
after daylong exchange of fire. Union blockade of South is maintained
|Shiloh (Pittsburgh Landing)
||Grant overcomes Southern forces with heavy losses for each side: 13,000
Union casualties, 11,000 for South
||Farragut seizes New Orleans for Union after boldly attacking Southern
position. 11 Southern ships sunk
|Peninsular Campaign (Yorktown, Seven Days' Battle, Fair Oaks)
||After continual prodding by Lincoln, McClellan decides to attack Richmond
via the South. He moves his large army down the Potomac, marches on Richmond,
and then assumes a defensive position rather than pushing for victory.
Gen. Lee takes command of Southern troops
|Bull Run (Manassas) 2nd battle
||McClellan replaced by Gen. Pope. Lee and Gen. Stonewall Jackson defeat
Union troops again at Manassas and Pope is replaced by McClellan
||Heavily outnumbered, Lee's troops face McClellan in bloody fighting.
Over 23,000 casualties (more than all previous American wars combined).
Lee retreats to Virginia
||September 23, 1862
||With victory at Antietam, Lincoln announces that on 1/1/63, all slaves
in the rebelling states would be free. Does not affect border states. Forces
European nations to recognize that choosing sides in the Civil War is to
take a stand on slavery
||Gen. Burnside attacks Lee's fortified position and suffers 10,000 casualties
(to Lee's 5000).
||Gen. Hooker defeated by Lee, but Jackson is mistakenly shot by his
own men and killed.
||After a long siege, Vicksburg surrenders to Grant. All of Mississippi
River is now in Union control
||Over 165,000 soldiers participate in the largest battle in the Western
Hemisphere. After three days of fighting, Lee retreats, leaving 4,000 dead
Confederates. Total casualties: 23,000 Union, 28,000 Confederates
||Reinforced with troops from the East, Grant is able to push Southern
troops back and prepare for assault on Atlanta and the heart of the Confederacy
|Grant promoted to Lt. General and given command of all Union troops
||Grant prepares for assault on Richmond. When Lincoln's Cabinet complains
that Grant is a drunk and seeks to interfere with his command, Lincoln
gives him unconditional support and asks not to notified of his plans.
|Wilderness & Spotsylvania
||Lee stops Union troops at the Wilderness, but Grant resumes march to
Richmond. Though suffering huge losses (55,000 men to South's 31,000), Grant
states "I propose to fight on this line if it takes all summer"
||June 1864--April 1865
||South of Richmond, Virginia
||Grant focuses on important railroad junction and communication outside
Richmond. Long siege of Petersburg begins with troops living in trenches
which stretched for 50 miles
|Atlanta to Savannah
||Gen. Sherman destroys Atlanta and then sends troops on 300 mile destructive
march to the sea. Railroads torn up, buildings destroyed, crops burned
in an attempt to break the will of the South
||April 9, 1865
||Appomattox Court House, Virginia
||Lee, refusing to see his troops suffer any further, surrenders to Grant.
Southern troops given generous terms of surrender