Buddhist monk immolates self in protest against Diem regime, 1963
||Democratic Republic of Vietnam established||1945||Vietnam||With defeat and withdrawal of Japanese, Ho Chi Minh leads new state with 15,000 French soldiers present||Ho retreats to hills||1947||Vietnam||French seek to depose Ho who leads Viet Minh troops in opposition to French colonial presence
||French suffer huge defeat as 12,000 troops surrender and withdraw from Indochina||May 7, 1954||Dienbienphu||Although U.S. paid 80% of French costs, Eisenhower refused to send troops to Vietnam
||Geneva Accords establish temporary division of Vietnam at 17th parallel||July 1954||Geneva, Switzerland||Vietnam is divided into two nations with Ho leading the north and Ngo Dinh Diem leading the "free" South. Promise of free elections in 1956
||Diem opponents form National Liberation Front (NLF)||1960||South Vietnam||Communists and others attempt to overthrow Diem and unify Vietnam
||Diem overthrown and assassinated||November 2, 1963||Saigon||With U.S. approval and support, Diem is replaced with military junta. 16,000 American military advisors in Vietnam
||Gulf of Tonkin Resolution||August 5, 1964||Washington, D.C.||Following conflict between U.S. destroyers and North Vietnamese gunboats, Pres. Johnson is given authority to "prevent further aggression." Measure passes Congress 416-0 in House and 88-2 in Senate
||Johnson defeats Goldwater for presidency||November 1964||U.S.||Portrayed as peace candidate, Johnson scores huge victory with 61% of the vote
||Johnson orders bombing of North Vietnam after attack at Pleiku kills 7 U.S. soldiers||February 1965||Vietnam||In retaliation for Communist attack on U.S. unit, LBJ authorizes attack, but stops short of all-out bombing
||20,000 U.S. troops sent to support South Vietnam||April 1, 1965||Violating his promises, LBJ raises U.S. troop level to 100,000 to fight Viet Cong
||Tet Offensive begins||January 31, 1968||Vietnam||Viet Cong forces launch massive attack on American positons throughout Vietnam. LBJ's popularity ratings drop to 35%
||My Lai Massacre||March 16, 1968||Vietnam||Lt. William Calley leads unit which kills at least 175 unarmed Vietnamese civilians. Calley is later court-martialed and convicted, though none of his superiors are charged
||LBJ announces withdrawal from 1968 presidential race||March 31, 1968||White House, Washington, D.C.
||Johnson announces end of bombing and calls for peace talks after embarassing performance in New Hampshire primaries||Paris Peace talks begin||May 1968||Paris||Longest war in U.S. history begins winding down
||Nixon defeats Humphrey and Wallace||November 1968||U.S.||Nixon wins with 43.4% of popular vote||U.S. begins secret bombing of North Vietnam and Cambodia||March 1969||Nixon avoids antiwar protests by not telling Congress or people about bombings
||Nixon announces withdrawal of 60,000 U.S. ground troops||September 1969||First reduction of U.S. troops since start of war
||U.S. troops enter Cambodia||April 1970||Cambodia||Despite Nixon pledges that U.S. troops were withdrawing from Vietnam, Cambodia invasion and bombing brought huge domestic opposition
||Kent State Massacre||May 4, 1970||Ohio||National Guard forces kill four students protesting Vietnam involvement
||Congress repeals Tonkin Gulf Resolution||June 24, 1970||Washington, D.C.||In 81-10 vote, Senate repeals authorization of U.S. involvement
||Laos invaded||February 1971||Laos||U.S. and South Vietnamese forces make incursion to "protect withdrawal of U.S. forces"
||Pentagon Papers released||June 1971||New York||New York Times begins publication of secret war study
||North Vietnamese troops invade South||March 1972||Vietnam||U.S. responds by widespread bombing of North, including bombing of Hanoi and mining of Haiphong Harbor
||Largest bombing of North Vietnam||December 17, 1972||North Vietnam||American B-52s begin largest bombing of war, losing 15 B-52s
||Cease-fire accord achieved||January 27, 1973||Paris||All fighting to stop and American prisoners of war to be released by North Vietnam
||Nixon resigns presidency||August 1974||White House, Washington, D.C.||Under pressure from members of his own party, Nixon ceases fight over Watergate scandal
||North Vietnamese forces take Saigon||April 30, 1975||Saigon, South Vietnam||Communist forces occupy South, renaming Saigon Ho Chi Minh City. U.S. troops evacuate American embassy as South Vietnamese flee|
Please cite this source when appropriate:
Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. History Resources"
http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html (31 March 1998).
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